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Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

تحليل السلوك التطبيقي (aba)

What is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)?

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a field based on the science of learning and behavior.

The field of behavior analysis helps to understand:

  • How behavior works.
  • How behavior is affected by the environment.
  • How to learn behavior.

Applied behavior analysis works to understand how behavior occurs in real situations. The goal of the field of applied behavior analysis is to increase desirable behaviors and reduce undesirable behaviors that affect the learning process.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs can help:

  • Increase language and communication skills.
  • Improve attention, focus and social skills, And memory, and academic skills.
  • Reducing unwanted behaviors.

Applied behavior analysis methods have been used and studied for decades. The field of applied behavior analysis has helped individuals acquire various life skills, The field of applied behavior analysis has been used by professionals since the 1960s to help individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders.

How does the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) work?

The field of applied behavior analysis includes many effective strategies for understanding, changing, and adapting behavior, as it:

  • Works to meet individual needs.
  • It works to apply desired behaviors in different situations such as home and school.
  • It teaches different daily life skills.
  • It can include individual teaching or group teaching.

Positive reinforcement

It is one of the main strategies used in the field of applied behavior analysis.

When a behavior is followed (rewarded), the individual may repeat the behavior over time.

Firstly: When defining the target behavior, Every time the individual performs the desired behavior, he receives a (reward) that is meaningful to the individual, including praise, games, Access to devices.

Rewards continually encourage the individual to engage in positive behavior.

Components of Behavior in the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Antecedents – behavior – consequences

Antecedents (what happens before the behavior) and consequences (what happens after the behavior) are the important parts of applied behavior analysis.

The following AB-Cs help us teach and understand behavior by:

1- Antecedents: They occur immediately before the target behavior and the antecedents can be verbal such as a command or request, Or physical, such as a toy, sound, light, or anything else in the environment, Antecedents may come from the environment, Or from some individuals, Or it may be internal (a thought or feeling).

2- Behavior: The individual’s response or non-response to the antecedents, The behavior can be an act, a verbal response, or anything else.

3- Consequence: The result comes immediately after the behavior. It can include positive reinforcement of desired behavior or non-response to undesired behavior.

Behavior Components (AB-Cs) help us understand:

Why a behavior might occur and how different outcomes might affect whether the behavior occurs again.

Example:

Antecedents: At the end of the day, the teacher says, “It’s time to put the toys back in their place.”

the behavior: The student shouts “No!”

The result: The teacher removes the toys and says, “Okay, “The game is completely finished.”

How can the field of applied behavior analysis help the student learn the desired behaviors in this situation?

Antecedents: At the end of the day, the teacher says, “Time to clean up.”

Behavior: The student is reminded to ask, “Can I have 5 more minutes?”

The result: The teacher says “Of course you can have 5 more minutes!”

With constant practice, The student will be able to replace undesirable behavior with more valuable and useful behavior. This is considered one of the most effective strategies that is easy to apply to individuals, as it contributes to increasing desired behaviors in different life situations.

What does the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) program include?

The Applied Behavior Analysis program is designed for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and is not a one-size-fits-all measure. Applied behavior analysis works to write programs that meet the individual needs of the learner.

The goal of individual programs in applied behavior analysis is to help each individual develop skills that will help them become independent and successful in the short and long term as well as in the future.

Continuous planning and evaluation:

The Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) designs and directly supervises the program, They customize a program according to the learner’s skills, needs, interests, preferences, and family situation.

The BCBA begins by conducting a detailed assessment of each individual’s skills and preferences and writing goals. Family goals and preferences may also be included, Goals are written based on the age and ability of the individual with ASD.

Goals can include many different skill areas such as:

  • Communication and language.
  • social skills.
  • Self-care (such as bathing and using the toilet).
  • Play and entertainment.
  • Driving skills.
  • Academic skills.
  • The instruction plan breaks down each of these skills into small, concrete steps. Where the specialist teaches each step individually, From the simple (such as imitating individual sounds) to the more complex (such as carrying on a conversation).

Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) and professionals measure progress by collecting data at each session, This data helps to monitor the person’s progress and development towards goals on an ongoing basis.

Certified behavior analysts and professionals meet regularly with family members to review information about the individual’s progress, plan ahead, and modify teaching plans and goals based on individual needs.

Techniques and philosophy of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA)

The specialist uses a variety of applied behavior analysis procedures. Some are directed by the specialist while others are directed by the individual with autism spectrum disorder.

– Parents, family members and caregivers should receive training so that they can support the educational process and practice different skills.

– An individual with autism spectrum disorder will have many opportunities to learn and practice skills every day, Learning opportunities can occur in planned and naturally occurring situations.

Example: The individual may learn to greet others by saying “hello.” He or she may have the opportunity to practice this skill in class with the teacher (planned), on the playground, and at recess (naturally speaking).

– The learner receives a lot of positive reinforcement for demonstrating useful and desirable skills and socially appropriate behaviors. The focus here is on positive social interactions and fun learning so that the learner does not receive any reinforcement for behaviors that hinder the educational process or prevent the individual from learning.

Applied Behavior Analysis is effective for individuals of all ages and can be used from early childhood through adulthood.

Who provides Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services?

The Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) offers Applied Behavior Analysis services to become a Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), You must:

1- Obtaining a master’s or doctoral degree in psychology or behavior analysis.

2- Passing the national certification exam.

3- Request a government license to practice the profession (in some states).

4- Applied behavior analysis programs also include registered behavior technicians (RBTs), These specialists are trained and supervised by a Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA).

5- Registered Behavior Technicians (RBTs) work directly with children and adults with autism spectrum disorder to practice skills and work toward individual goals that have been written by a Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA).

What is the evidence that the field of applied behavior analysis is effective?

Applied Behavior Analysis is considered an evidence-based best practice by the American Psychological Association in the USA.

“Evidence-based” means that ABA has passed scientific tests for its usefulness, quality, and effectiveness. Applied behavior analysis includes many different effective strategies, all of which focus on antecedents (what happens before the behavior occurs) and consequences (what happens after the behavior).

More than 20 studies have proven its effectiveness in intensive, long-term education for individuals with autism spectrum disorder using the principles of applied behavior analysis, showing the best results for the majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, but not for all.

The terms “intensive” and “long-term” refer to programs that provide 25 to 40 hours per week for 1 to 3 years. The results of these studies showed development in mental and linguistic performance and development in daily life and social skills.

Does applied behavior analysis include medical insurance?

sometimes, There are many types of private health insurance to cover ABA services and it depends on the type of insurance you have and where you live.

Insurance must cover necessary treatments for children under 21 years of age, If a doctor prescribes ABA services and says it is medically necessary for your child, Insurance must cover the cost.

Where are Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services located?

1- Talk to your child’s pediatrician or other medical provider about applied behavior analysis.

2- It can be discussed whether applied behavior analysis services are appropriate for the child.

3- They can write a prescription for Applied Behavior Analysis if it is necessary for medical insurance.

4- Check whether your insurance company covers the cost of all applied behavior analysis services.

5- Search for a directory of services providing applied behavior analysis from the nearby area, or it is possible to ask the doctor responsible for the child to get some recommendations.

What questions should I ask?

The first step is for the specialist to establish a good relationship with your child. If the child trusts the specialist and enjoys spending time with him, learning will be more enjoyable for the child.

The following questions can help you evaluate whether a provider is a good fit:

  • How many Chartered Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) do you have on staff?
  • Are they licensed by the American Board?
  • How many behavioral specialists are there?
  • How many specialists are working with my child?
  • What type of training do specialists receive? How many times?
  • How much direct supervision do professionals receive from Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) weekly?
  • How do specialists deal with safety rules?
  • Is an ABA session typically implemented?
  • Are applied behavior analysis services provided at home or at the center?
  • How do I set my child’s goals? Will parents be involved in the plan?
  • How often will you re-evaluate goals for the child?
  • How is a child’s progress assessed?
  • How many hours per week will the intervention be provided?
  • Do you have a registered waiting list?
  • What type of medical insurance do you accept?

Reference:

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) | Autism Speaks