الأبعاد السبعة لخدمات تحليل السلوك التطبيقي

Developmental stage:

Age group: 1 year old:

Social:

  • He likes to hand things over to others and also plays.
  • He may have tantrums
  • Shows affection to familiar people
  • Simple imaginative play, Like feeding a doll
  • They may cling to caregivers in situations
  • Explores alone but with parent nearby.

communication :

  • Says several single words
  • “No,” he says and shakes his head.
  • Points to show someone you want

Cognitive (learning, thinking and problem solving)

  • Knows the purpose of ordinary objects for example a phone, Brush.
  • A doll or stuffed animal shows interest by pretending to feed dots to one part of the body.
  • He scribbles on his own.
  • Can follow one-step verbal commands without any gestures e.g. sits when you say sit

Movement/physical development:

  • He walks alone
  • Go upstairs
  • Pulls out toys while walking
  • She can help undress herself.
  • He drinks from a cup
  • He eats with a spoon.

Red flags for a yearling :

  • Don’t imitate others
  • Doesn’t learn new words
  • He loses the skills he once had
  • Misses landmarks
  • Can not walk
  • It does not refer to showing things to others
  • Doesn’t know familiar things

Age group: 2 years old:

Social:

  • He imitates others, especially adults and those older than him
  • He interacts when he appears with other children
  • Independence
  • He plays and shows what he was told not to do
  • Plays tag games

communication :

  • Refers to objects or images when naming them
  • Knows the names of familiar people and body parts
  • Says sentences of 2 to 4 words
  • Follow simple instructions
  • Repeats words heard in conversation
  • Points to things in a book

Cognitive (learning, thinking and problem solving)

  • Searching for things even when they are hidden under two or three covers
  • Plays imaginative games
  • Builds towers of 4 or more cubes
  • FOLLOW TWO-STEP INSTRUCTIONS Pick up your boots and put them in the locker
  • Names the elements in a picture book, such as a cat, a bird, or a dog

Movement/physical development:

  • kick the ball
  • He starts running
  • Climbs and descends furniture without assistance
  • He walks up and down the stairs

Red flags for two-year-olds:

  • Doesn’t follow simple instructions
  • He does not walk steadily
  • He loses the skills he once had
  • Misses landmarks
  • He does not use two-word phrases: Drink milk
  • He does not know the function and use of things, such as: Phone – hairbrush – spoon
  • He does not imitate words or actions

Age group: 3 years old :

Social:

  • The role is exchanged
  • Cares about other people’s feelings
  • Shows understanding of ownership
  • Shows a range of emotions (sadness, crying, anger, joy)
  • Takes off clothes independently

communication :

  • Follow the instructions in two or three steps
  • Can name most familiar objects
  • Says his name, age and gender
  • He calls his friend
  • Conducts a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences

Cognitive (learning, thinking and problem solving)

  • Plays imaginative games
  • Assembling a puzzle of 3 or 4 pieces
  • Builds towers of 6 cubes or more
  • He turns the pages of the book one by one
  • Understands what the word (two) means
  • Copy a circle shape

Movement/physical development:

  • Climbs well independently
  • He rides a tricycle
  • He goes up the stairs and goes down with every step

Red flags for a 3 year old:

  • Misses landmarks
  • He falls frequently or has trouble with stairs
  • Drools or has very slurred speech
  • He doesn’t play pretend games
  • He doesn’t want to play with other children
  • Poor eye contact
  • He loses the skills he had

Early Intervention

Consultation stage:

A functional behavior assessment interview is conducted with the parents and the necessary basic data is taken from the parents

If the parents need a diagnosis, there are specific standards for diagnosis. During the evaluation, the specialist is not authorized to diagnose unless this is requested by the parents.

  • Evaluation stage:

The evaluation stage takes place with the child through direct observation and the use of scientifically standardized standards: (Vineland and Ebels verbal behavior)

Signs of autism appear between the ages of 9 and 18 months

Example : He does not respond to smiling – poor eye contact – responding to names

At the age of 11 months, the child recognizes close people

  • Early intervention stage:

First, what is early intervention?

It is organized procedures aimed at encouraging the maximum possible development of children under the age of six with special needs, and strengthening the functional competence of their families.

Many studies have proven that providing educational and social experiences during the first years of a child’s life (up to the age of 6 years) positively affects his development in all its aspects.
Studies also indicate that early intervention programs have important effects on mothers of children. Hence, the importance of this period of a child’s life in relation to his future development was emphasized.

It should be noted that the nature of early intervention services and the means of providing them, It varies from one child to another depending on his needs.
The primary goal of early intervention in the fields of special education is:

Reducing the negative effects of disability on the child and his family in the social, academic, behavioral and psychological aspects.
Increasing society’s acceptance of the child and its understanding of his needs and utilizing his abilities. Early intervention also aims to strengthen the relationship between the child and his parents by training them in several skills, And how to coexist with each other. Early intervention is also important to prevent linguistic delay and develop the child’s emotional and social abilities, which are undoubtedly elements that both the child and his family need.
Early intervention also has a significant impact on the family’s adaptation and alleviating the material and moral burdens in the future as a result of their disability .
Hence, the ultimate goal of early intervention is to apply preventive strategies to reduce the incidence or severity of disability or disabling conditions. Preventive strategies are either primary or secondary.

Target groups of children to whom early intervention programs are provided:
1- Children who suffer from developmental delay
2- Children whose medical condition deteriorates into developmental delay
3- Children who are at risk of suffering from developmental delay if early intervention programs are not provided to them.
Early intervention takes many forms, including:
•Early intervention at both the center and home.
•Early intervention in hospitals.
•Early intervention through the media (awareness)

When talking about early intervention, people come to mind about how and how to provide services?

In education, the term service delivery methods is used to mean the administrative arrangements used to deliver educational assistance to children with special needs.
These methods were known in light of the type of spatial framework in which they were presented (integration chapter, special chapter, resource room, day school, shelter school, inside the house).

This trend prompted researchers and professionals to focus attention on the issue of where the child should be placed more than on the issue of what the child should be given from this place!!
Therefore, special education must offer something special, Something extra, more unusual than what is offered in the regular class.

Dunn suggested (In: Peterson (1987) four types of arrangements that professionals can use to help students with special needs, Dunn focuses on the components of a special education program, It describes services in light of what should characterize special education.
The problem of the first direction that is concerned with place, The second trend is concerned with content, They do not focus on the importance of the actual procedures and process by which services are delivered.

Therefore, there was a shift in the definition of “service provision,” as the term became focused on the process.

This definition emphasizes the strategies and activities used in providing private services, This includes planning all of the following steps or processes:
Who will receive the services? When does it start and how long does it last? What services are provided, That is, it will be presented Who will serve?

Given that the currently common methods of providing services still follow the traditional method, These methods will be classified according to the type of place in which special services are provided.
The methods are divided into two groups:

1/ Methods of providing services within the home.
In this type of service delivery method, services are delivered to children with needs and their families within the home.
and that is done by:

  • Strengthening the family
    •Family visit program.

2/Methods of providing services within the center.
This method depends on the family bringing the child to an early intervention program in a center where the required services are provided by professionals. Intervention is carried out on an individual or small group basis. Most curricula tend to use developmental and therapeutic models.

The most important types of these methods are:
•Mother-child centres.
•Child development care centers.
•Reverse merger centers.
•Kindergarten.

finally
The family plays a very large role by participating in early intervention programs. The effects of the programs must be disseminated to family members. To benefit the family and the child in particular.

Family support service

Family support service:

Psychological support: These are groups concerned with emotional and social psychological treatment individually and in groups, and these groups help families adapt

Developmental and educational support groups that focus primarily on educating and training parents to increase and develop their experiences, abilities, and skills. Their support programs depend on the needs of the participants, their circumstances, and the environment of the child and family.

There are benefits from these groups in that they reduced the degree of depression, decreased isolation, increased satisfaction, and improved access to information sources.

Support strategies in the early intervention stage:

Types of support in the transitional phase:

Informational and practical support to help the family prepare the child for changes and provide appropriate support to achieve this, as well as prepare them to accept it

Information support for the family and providing them with information about the center, methods of contracting with it, and the specialized team that will work with the child

Emotional and emotional support through specialists understanding the concerns, problems, and circumstances of the family and the child’s condition in a comprehensive manner and containing their problems.

Legal and moral support and enacting laws that provide them with services and meet their needs

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