Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Visual impairment and visually impaired

الأبعاد السبعة لخدمات تحليل السلوك التطبيقي

Visual impairment and visually impaired

the definition

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides definitions for several disabilities that can make children eligible for special education and related services in schools.

Visual impairment is also one of these disabilities defined by law as follows:

Visual impairment: It is a defect in vision that, even with correction, negatively affects the child’s educational performance.

The term includes: Partial visual impairment and total visual impairment.

the date

  • Nearly 12 million people age 40 and older in the United States have low vision, including 1 million who are blind and 3 million who have post-corrected vision.

  • Studies in 2012 indicated that (4.2 million) Americans aged 40 years and older suffer from uncorrectable vision loss, Including (1.02 million) blind people, This number is expected to double by 2050 to reach (8.96 million) due to increasing epidemics of diabetes and other chronic diseases.
  • It is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States are at risk of severe vision loss. But only half of them had visited an ophthalmologist within the past 12 months.

  • It is estimated that the economic cost of major vision problems will rise to ($373 billion) by 2050.

  • Early detection and timely intervention of eye diseases such as: diabetic retinopathy, Cost-effective and effective, 90% of vision loss caused by diabetes can be prevented when detected early.

  • Vision loss in millions of people causes significant social and economic losses, including severe suffering, disability, loss of productivity, and deterioration in their quality of life.
  • National and state data show that more than half of American adults who do not seek eye care do so because of a lack of awareness or lack of costs, often exacerbated by a person’s lack of health insurance.

the reasons

There are many reasons why people suffer from vision loss, the most important of which are:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) : A common complication of diabetes, it is the leading cause of blindness in American adults.

People can suffer from vision loss as a result of gradual damage to the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that is essential for good vision.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops through four stages:

1- Mild non-proliferative retinopathy: It is a small blood vessel aneurysm.

2- Mild non-proliferative retinopathy: It is a blockage in some retinal vessels.

3- Severe non-proliferative retinopathy: In it, more vessels are blocked, depriving the retina of its blood supply, which leads to the growth of new blood vessels.

4- Proliferative retinopathy (the most advanced stage): Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.

eye lens darkening :

Cataracts are clouding of the lens of the eye and are the leading cause of vision loss in the United States of America and around the world.

Cataracts can occur at any age due to a variety of reasons and may be present from birth.


It is a group of diseases that can damage the optic nerve of the eye and lead to vision loss.

Glaucoma occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eye rises slowly.


It is also referred to as “lazy eye” and is the most common cause of visual impairment in children.

Amblyopia is the medical term used when vision in one eye is reduced because the eye and brain are not working together properly. The eye itself appears normal but is not used normally because the brain prefers the other eye.

Conditions that lead to amblyopia include strabismus, Imbalance in the position of the eyes.


It is an imbalance in the position of the eyes resulting from a lack of coordination between the eyes. As a result, the eyes look in different directions and do not focus at the same time on one point.

In most cases of strabismus in children, the cause is unknown. In more than half of these cases, the problem appears at birth or shortly after.


Common signs that a child has a visual impairment include:

1- Eyes do not move together when following an object or following someone’s face.

2- Eyes bulge or bounce in quick movements.

3- Unequal pupil size in both eyes or in the eye that can appear white instead of black.

4- Close or cover one eye frequently.

5- Frequently colliding with or knocking over objects.

6- Frequent squinting, blinking, or eye rubbing, especially in the absence of bright light.

7- Sitting near the TV or holding toys and books close to the face.

8- Avoid tasks and activities that require good vision.


While a large number of eye diseases can be prevented, such as: infections and trauma, unsafe traditional medicines, Postpartum or nutritional-related diseases and unsafe use of topical treatment, However, prevention methods may not be available to everyone .

Treatment is also available for many eye conditions that do not usually cause visual impairment, such as: Dry Eye, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, But it causes discomfort and pain, Treatment of these conditions aims to relieve symptoms and prevent progression to more severe diseases.

Visual rehabilitation is a very effective treatment for improving performance for people with irreversible visual impairment that can be caused by eye diseases such as: diabetic retinopathy, And glaucoma, consequences of trauma, Age-related macular degeneration.

Providing education and rehabilitation for people with vision loss in accordance with the IDEA law.