Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often persists into adulthood.
Children with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention, and inability to control impulsive behaviors (they may act without thinking about the outcome of their actions).
The term attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was first mentioned in 1902, and the term was described by British physician George Frederick Abnormal performance in controlling behaviors in children.
1922 Alfred F. Tradegould, Britain’s leading expert on intellectual disability, suggested that ADHD was most likely caused by a difference or damage to the brain—rather than personality defects or lack of discipline. This is a step toward “medicalizing” ADHD symptoms as a result of brain activity rather than simply seeing them as disordered behavior.
1923 : Researcher Franklin provides evidence that ADHD can arise from brain injury by studying children who survived encephalitis.
1952: The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has been published. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the symptoms it contains are widely considered the trusted reference for doctors. But he did not recognize or include the condition or symptoms of ADHD, only a condition called “minimal brain impairment,” which indicates that a child who exhibits hyperactive behavior has brain damage, even if he shows no physical signs of it.
1968 : The second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual was printed. The second edition included “hyperactive-impulsive disorder,” the first time the American Psychiatric Association (APA) recognized the symptoms now known as ADHD.
1980: The third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been released. The American Psychological Association (APA) has changed the name of impulsive disorder to attention-deficit disorder (ADD)-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This is the first time that this group of symptoms has been given its more common modern name.
1987 : A revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and DSM-III-R was released. The subtypes were removed, and the name of the condition was changed to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). What was previously called (ADD) without hyperactivity is now referred to as (ADD3).
2002 : The first non-stimulant medication, Strattera (atomoxetine), is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat ADHD.
2013 : The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is published, and includes language changes for each of the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, and the condition can be described as mild, moderate, or severe
There has been a lot of research in the past few years pointing to possible causes of ADHD.
Brain imaging studies have found differences and similarities between people with and without ADHD.
Research shows that brain development is very similar. But areas involving performing functions take longer to develop in people with ADHD.
Research has also shown some differences in how the brain works, These differences have nothing to do with intelligence.
People with ADHD are just as smart as people without it.
Researchers also aim to determine the role of genetics, The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder increases in families where a relative has the disorder. Specifically, if one of the parents has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
The main symptoms of ADHD are problems concentrating, and rush, And hyperactivity.
Symptoms and problems can appear in varying degrees, Symptoms can also change, Some may disappear with age.
The well-known stereotype of children with ADHD is that they are always on the move. They are impulsive and hyperactive in their behavior at home and school.
People with ADHD often suffer from an inability to (manage time – organize and stay organized – set priorities – plan – manage emotions – pay attention to and remember things – shift focus from one thing to another – start and finish tasks – think before saying or doing things)
There are several types of treatment for ADHD. Of which:
pharmaceutical: Experts agree that this is the most effective way to treat ADHD in most children and adults.
Behavioral intervention: This type of therapy involves creating a reward system to change the child’s behavior, It is a system different from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Which helps people look at their thoughts, emotions and behaviors and make positive changes.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be helpful for some people with ADHD, But it is not a cure for ADHD.